Interview FAQs

1. ADO.Net is a part of the .Net Framework
2. ADO.Net consists of a set of classes used to handle data access
3. ADO.Net is entirely based on XML
4. ADO.Net has, unlike ADO, no Recordset object
Some of the new features in ASP.Net 2.0 are:

1. Master Pages, Themes, and Web Parts
2. Standard controls for navigation
3. Standard controls for security
4. Roles, personalization, and internationalization services
5. Improved and simplified data access controls
6. Full support for XML standards like, XHTML, XML, and WSDL
7. Improved compilation and deployment (installation)
8. Improved site management
9. New and improved development tools

A ASP.Net assembly may contain the following elements:

1. Assembly Manifest - Metadata that describes the assembly and its contents
2. Source Code - Compiled into Microsoft intermediate language
3. Type Metadata - Defines all types, their properties and methods, and most importantly, public types exported from this assembly
4. Resources - Icons, images, text strings and other resources

An assembly manifest is metadata inside an assembly that describes everything there is to know about the assembly and its contents. The manifest contains:

1. Strong Name - The assembly name, version, culture, optional processor architecture, and public key (for shared assemblies)
2. File Contents - Name and hash of all files in the assembly
3. Type List - Types defined in the assembly, including public types that are exported from the assembly
4. Resource List - Icons, images, text strings and other resources contained in the assembly
5. Dependencies - Compile-time dependencies on other assemblies
6. Security - Permissions required for the assembly to run properly

Namespaces are logical, whereas assemblies are physical.

A namespace is a logical naming scheme to group related types. Namespaces can contain other namespaces to form a hierarchy. The “fully qualified name” of a type is its namespace followed by its type name, separated by a period (for example, System.Windows.Forms.Button). Type names must be unique within a namespace, but the same type name can be used in different namespaces.

An assembly is a physical deployment scheme to group related types. An assembly can contain one or many namespaces. A namespace can exist in one or many assemblies.

Strong names are required to store shared assemblies in the global assembly cache (GAC). This is because the GAC allows multiple versions of the same assembly to reside on your system simultaneously, so that each application can find and use its own version of your assembly. This helps avoid DLL Hell, where applications that may be compiled to different versions of your assembly could potentially break because they are all forced to use the same version of your assembly.

Another reason to use strong names is to make it difficult for hackers to spoof your assembly, in other words, replace or inject your assembly with a virus or malicious code.

Delay signing is signing an assembly with its strong name public key, which is freely distributable, instead of using the private key as usual. This allows developers to use and test a strong-named assembly without access to the private key. Then at a later stage (typically just before shipping the assembly), a manager or trusted keyholder must sign the assembly with the corresponding private key.
A strong name key file has a .snk extension and contains a unique public-private key pair. You use the strong name key file to digitally sign your assembly. Note that this type of file is not secure, as the private key in a .snk file can be easily compromised.

For added protection, Visual Studio can encrypt a strong name key file, which produces a file with the .pfx (Personal Information eXchange) extension. The .pfx file is more secure because whenever someone attempts to use the encrypted key, she will be prompted for the password.

.NET uses digital signatures to verify the integrity of an assembly. The signatures are generated and verified using public key cryptography, specifically the RSA public key algorithm and SHA-1 hash algorithm. The developer uses a pair of cryptographic keys: a public key, which everyone can see, and a private key, which the developer must keep secret.

To create a strong-named assembly, the developer signs the assembly with his private key when building the assembly. When the system later loads the assembly, it verifies the assembly with the corresponding public key.

On Microsoft Windows operating systems, a Windows Service is a long-running executable that performs specific functions and which is designed not to require user intervention. Windows services can be configured to start when the operating system is booted and run in the background as long as Windows is running, or they can be started manually when required.

Once a service is installed, it can be managed by launching "Services" from the Windows Control Panel -> Administrative Tools or typing "Services.msc" in the Run command on Start menu. The "Services" management console provides a brief description of the service functions and displays the path to the service executable, its current status, startup type, dependencies and the account under which the service is running. It enables users to:

1. Start, stop, pause or restart services.
2. Specify service parameters.
3. Change the startup type which includes Automatic, Manual and Disabled.

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