Stateless protocol is a communications protocol that treats each request as an independent transaction that is unrelated to any previous request so that the communication consists of independent pairs of requests and responses.

State management is the process by which you maintain state and page information over multiple requests for the same or different pages.


  • Session provide us the way of maintain user state/data.
  • It is very easy to implement.
  • One big advantage of session is that we can store any kind of object in it. eg, datatable, dataset etc
  • By using session we do not need to worry about data collapsed, because it store every client data separately.
  • Session is secure and transparent from the user.
  • Performance overhead in case of large volumes of data/user, because session data is stored in server memory.
  • Overhead involved in serializing and de-serializing session data, because in the case of StateServer and SQLServer session modes, we need to serialize the objects before storing them.

System.Object is the top .NET class that everything is derived from.
We use untrusted verification because web Services might use it, as well as non-windows applications. 

The advantages of Ado.Net  are-

  • ADO.NET does not depend on continuously live connections 
  • Database interactions are performed using data commands 
  • Data can be cached in datasets 
  • Datasets are independent of data sources 
  • Data is persisted as xml 
  • Schemas define data structures

We need to serialize the object, if you want to pass object from one computer/application domain to another. Process of converting complex objects into stream of bytes that can be persisted or transported. Namespace for serialization is System.Runtime.Serialization. The ISerializable interface allows you to make any class Serializable. .Net framework provides two serialization method-

  1. Binary Serialization 
  2. XML Serialization

Globalization is the process of creating an application that meets the needs of users from multiple cultures. It includes using the correct currency, date and time format, calendar, writing direction, sorting rules, and other issues. Accommodating these cultural differences in an application is called localization. Using classes of System.Globalization namespace, you can set applications current culture.
This can be achieved by using any of the following 3 approaches-

  • Detect and redirect.
  • Run-time adjustment.
  • Using Satellite assemblies.

Partial Assembly reference:  We can dynamically reference an assembly by providing only partial information, such as specifying only the assembly name. When you specify a partial assembly reference, the runtime looks for the assembly only in the application directory.
We can make partial references to an assembly in your code one of the following ways: 

  • Use a method such as System.Reflection.Assembly.Load and specify only a partial reference. The runtime checks for the assembly in the application directory.
  • Use the System.Reflection.Assembly.LoadWithPartialName method and specify only a partial reference. The runtime checks for the assembly in the application directory and in the global assembly cache.

The Page_Load event handler in the page checks for IsPostBack property value, to ascertain whether the page is posted. The Page.IsPostBack gets a value indicating whether the page is being loaded in response to the client postback, or it is for the first time. The value of Page.IsPostBack is True, if the page is being loaded in response to the client postback; while its value is False, when the page is loaded for the first time. The Page.IsPostBack property facilitates execution of certain routine in Page_Load, only once (for e.g. in Page load, we need to set default value in controls, when page is loaded for the first time. On post back, we check for true value for IsPostback value and then invoke server-side code to update data).

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