Inside the application domain when threads get created, threads gets default culture from windows initialized from the system default locale as configured in control panel > region and language settings. But with .NET Framework 4.5 it is possible to provide default culture for an application domain using DefaultThreadCurrentCulture and CurrentUICulture properties of CultureInfo class.

By default, the StringComparer class and the string.GetHashCode method use a single hashing algorithm that produces a consistent hash code across application domains. This is equivalent to setting the enabled attribute of the element to 0. This is the hashing algorithm used in the .NET Framework 4. The StringComparer class and the String.GetHashCode method can also use a different hashing algorithm that computes hash codes on a per application domain basis. As a result, hash codes for equivalent strings will differ across application domains. This is an opt-in feature; to take advantage of it, you must set the enabled attribute of the element to 1.

 From the .NET Framework 2.0 Service Pack 1 through the .NET Framework 4, each version of the.NET Framework has included tables that contain sort weights and data on string normalization and that are based on a particular version of Unicode. In the .NET Framework 4.5, the presence of these tables depends on the operating system:

  • On Windows 7 and previous versions of the Windows operating system, the tables continue to be used for comparing and ordering strings.
  • On Windows 8, the .NET Framework delegates string comparison and ordering operations to the operating system.
  • Consequently, the result of a string comparison can depend not only on the .NET Framework version, but also on the operating system version, as the following table shows:
  1. .NET Framework version Operating system Unicode version
  2. .NET Framework 4 All operating systems Unicode 5.0
  3. NET Framework 4.5 Windows 7 Unicode 5.0
  4. NET Framework 4.5 Windows 8 Unicode 6.0
  • On Windows 8, because the version of Unicode used in string comparison and ordering depends on the version of the operating system, the results of string comparison may differ even for applications that run on a specific version of the .NET Framework.
The SortVersion class provides information about the Unicode version used by the .NET Framework for string comparison and ordering. It enables to write applications that can detect and successfully handle changes in the version of Unicode that is used to compare and sort an application’s strings. The following example contains a portion of the source code from an application that uses the SortVersion class to ensure that the native names of RegionInfo objects are ordered appropriately for the current system and current culture.

We can write the client side validation control in jquery-

A singleton is a design pattern used when only one instance of an object is created and shared; that is, it only allows one instance of itself to be created. Any attempt to create another instance simply returns a reference to the first one. Singleton classes are created by defining all class constructors as private. In addition, a private static member is created as the same type of the class, along with a public static member that returns an instance of the class. Here is a basic example:

The StringBuilder provides amazing flexibility when we require more complex operations.System.Text contains StringBuilder() object.

Strings are the collections of texts.Unlike old C language; a string doesn’t terminate when it finds /0 character. We can use both the keywords String or string in C#.Point to be noted that if we are concerned about security issues regarding string manipulation;we have to give importance to the String keyword.We have already declared as well as initialized strings in previous lessons.In order to refresh your memory;I will highlight them;

You can redefine or overload most of the built-in operators available in C#. Thus a programmer can use operators with user-defined types as well. Overloaded operators are functions with special names the keyword operator followed by the symbol for the operator being defined. similar to any other function, an overloaded operator has a return type and a parameter list.User-defined types such as classes,structures etc; often overload operators by defining a member function which is static using the operator keyword.We can not overload each and every operator by this approach

There are not that many tools out there that will support both client-side and server-side debugging. Below is some information on the client-side debuggers on some of the commonly used browsers-
Firefox/Mozilla/Netscape - Have a built in debugger Venkman which can be helpful but there is a Firefox add on known as FireBug which provides all the information and AJAX developer would ever need including the ability to inspect the browser DOM, console access to the JavaScript runtime in the browser, and the ability to see the HTTP requests and responses (including those made by an XMLHttpRequest). I tend to develop my applications initially on Firefox using Firebug then venture out to the other browsers. 
Safari - Has a debugger which needs to be enabled. See the Safari FAQ for details. 
Internet Explorer - There is MSDN Documentation on debugging JavaScript. A developer toolbar for Internet Explorer may also be helpful. While debuggers help a common technique knowing as "Alert Debugging" may be used. In this case you place "alert()" function calls inline much like you would a System.out.println. While a little primitive it works for most basic cases. Some frameworks such as Dojo provide APIs for tracking debug statements.

Visual Studio 2013 has new and enhanced features like,

  • Visual Studio languages     
  • .NET Framework 4.5.1 
  • TFS and ALM                
  •  SharePoint and Office 
  • LightSwitch                
  • Windows Azure Mobile Services etc.etc. but in this post I am not going to discuss all the above.

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