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.Net framework is the technology on which .Net applications are developed and deployed. The framework consist of three main components -

1. CLR (Comman Langauge Runtime)
2. Unified Classes (Framework Base Classes)
3. User and Program Interface (ASP.Net, Winforms)

The Common Language Runtime is the execution engine of the .Net framework. CLR is responsible for loading and running the programs. Its unique feature is that it is designed to be common across many languages (cross-langauge interoperability).

The CLR or the Runtime provides functionality, such as exception handling, security, debugging and versioning support to any language that targets it.

The garbage collection process manages the allocation and deallocation of memory for an application. Whenever you creates an object, the CLR allocates the memory for the object from the managed heap.

The Common Type System provides a set of Common Data Types for use across all the programming languages targeted by the .Net framework. The CTS provides every language running on the top of the .Net framework with the base set of types as well as mechanisms for extending those types. The CTS supports a variety of types and operations found in most programmimg languages and therefore calling one language from another does not require type conversions.
CLS provides the set of specification which has to be adhered by any language writer/compiler writer for the .Net framework. This insures interoperability.

Or

The Commom Language Specification defines a set of rules that enables interoperability on the .Net platform. These rules serves as a guide to third-party compiler designer and library builders. The CLS is the subset of CTS and there for the language supporting the CLS can uses others class libraries as if they azre thier own. Application Program Interface (APIs) that are designed following the rules of CLS can easily be used by all the .Net languages.

An Assembly is single deployable unit that contains all the information about the implementation of the classes, structures, interfaces and are similar to the DLL files. Both have the reusable pieces of code in the form of classes and functions. DLL needs to be registered but assemblies have its own METADATA.

An assembly stores all the information about itself. This is called METADATA and includes the name and version number of the assembly, security information, information about the dependencies and list of files that constitute the assembly.

Namespaces are also stored in the assemblies. In the .Net framework, applications are deployed in the form of assemblies.

String, Integer, Double, Date and Currency.
Server-side code executes on the server machine.
Client-side code executes in the client browser.
No, It just reads and display the information from its data source.
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