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XML Parser is used to convert from XML document into an XML DOM object which can be written in Javascript.
XQuery was designed to query XML data which is nothing but SQL for database tables. XQuery is used to fetch the data from the XML file.

XML editors are required to write error free XML documents, and it is used to validate against DTD or schema. Editors are able to check:

  • Open and Close Tags
  • XML against DTD
  • XML against Schema
  • Color code on XML Syntax


DOM4J is an open source, java based library to parse XML document and it is highly flexible, high-performance, and memory-efficient API. It is java optimized, it uses java collection like List and Arrays. It works with DOM, SAX, XPath and XSLT. It can parse large XML document with very low memory footprint.

When you parse an XML document with a DOM4J parser, you get the flexibility to get back a tree structure that contains all of the elements of your document without impacting the memory footprint of the application. The DOM4J provides a variety of utility functions you can use to examine the contents and structure of the document in case document iswell structured and its structure is known. DOM4J uses XPath expression to navigate through the XML document.

There are two types of XML encoding errors:

  • An invalid character was found in text content.
  • Switching from current encoding to specified encoding not supported.
These errors occur because XML document can contain non ASCII characters like Norwegian and French. These errors can be avoided by specifying the XML encoding Unicode.

XPath is a technology used in XML. It is used to retrieve elements from XML documents. XPath expressions can be used to locate and retrieve elements, attributes and values from XML files because XML documents are structured. It is similar to SQL.
As SQL is used to retrieve data from database, XPath is used to retrieve data from XML.

To apply a DTD to an XML document, you can:

  • Use the DTD element definition within the XML document itself.
  • Provide a DTD as a separate file and reference its name in XML document.

SGML is large and powerful Standard Generalized markup Language which is used to define descriptions of the structure of different types of electronic document.
An XML schema gives the definition of an XML document, and it has following:

  • Elements and attributes
  • Elements that are child elements
  • Order of child elements
  • Data types of elements and attributes
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